Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques


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This is a largely nonstructured, often tacit source of insight into crime-related events. Other data collection sources include personal and electronic observations, tele-. According to Pendleton and Chvez , there is little evidence that the police profession is aware of knowledge management as an overall management strategy, but is involved in knowledge management activities in an incremental way.

Knowledge management, as a purposeful organizational strategy, is more than an innovation in itself, but is a fundamental part of the innovation process that is essential to sustaining an organizational culture that is based in innovation. If the police profession is to sustain its position on the cutting edge of innovation, there is a need to integrate the various knowledge management techniques into interrelated systems based on modern information technology.

The fundamental police concern is typically with processing demand for service, not storage, retrieval, analysis, or even record management per se. Policing runs in a crisis mode and is overwhelmed with the present, impending, or possible crisis. Each information technology at first competes for space, time, and legitimacy with other known means, and is judged in policing by somewhat changing pragmatic, often nontechnical, values: its speed, its durability and weight, and its contribution to the officers notion of the role and routines. New technologies are put into use untested and without arrangement for the maintenance that will inevitably be needed.

In other words, innovations are taken up on an ad hoc, here-and-now basis, according to Manning Some IT facilities are purchased by state or local authorities for multiple purposes, and are not vetted, contracted for, nor acquired by police management or budgetary officers. The lack of understanding of IT has made police vulnerable to vendors, changes in city or county policies, and the handful of officers who have learned IT on the job and found a niche. This has increased maintenance costs, made replacement expensive, and created an array of incompatible databases and systems Manning, Knowledge is a fundamental asset in law enforcement.

Increasingly, knowledge is distributed across individuals, teams, and organizations. Therefore, the ability to create, acquire, integrate, and deploy knowledge has emerged as fundamental organizational capability. The centrality of knowledge in organizations is reflected in the emergence of the knowledge-based view as an important theoretical stance in contemporary organizational research. Theoretical proposals indicate that advantages. Knowledge is a complex concept, and a number of factors determine the nature of knowledge creation, management, valuation, and sharing.

Organizational knowledge is created through cycles of combination, internalization, socialization, and externalization that transform knowledge between tacit and explicit modes. Knowledge management is of particular relevance to information systems because the functionalities of information technologies play a critical role in shaping organizational efforts for knowledge creation, acquisition, integration, valuation, and use.

Information systems have been central to organizational efforts to enable work processes, flows of information, and sources of knowledge to be integrated, and for synergies from such combinations to be realized. The focus of the deployment of knowledge management systems in organizations has been on developing searchable document repositories to support the digital capture, storage, retrieval, and distribution of an organizations explicitly documented knowledge.

Information systems developers have evolved several frameworks to articulate themes related to knowledge management, which will be presented in this book. There is a diversity of organizational processes through which information systems affect the management of intangible assets in and between organizations. Furthermore, technical and social processes interact in complementarities to shape knowledge management efforts. For example, although information technologies foster electronic communities of practice, there are social dynamics through which such communities become effective forums for knowledge dissemination, integration, and use.

MIS Quarterly is a leading research journal on management information systems. In March and June , the journal published a special issue, in two volumes, on information technologies and knowledge management. In the introduction to the special issue, Sambamurthy and Subramani presented three types of organizational problems where knowledge management systems can make a difference:.

The problem of knowledge coordination. Individuals or groups face knowledge coordination problems when the knowledge needed to diagnose and solve a problem or make an appropriate decision exists or is believed to exist , but knowledge about its existence or location is not available to the individual or group. Knowledge coordination problems require a search for expertise, and are aided by an understanding of patterns of knowledge distributionof who knows what and who can be asked for help. Research suggests that personal, social, or organizational networks facilitate awareness about knowing entities and their possession of knowledge.

Similarly, information technologies can facilitate the efficient and effective nurturing of communities of practice through which distributed knowledge can be coordinated. The problem of knowledge transfer.

Executive summary

This problem is often faced by individuals or groups once an appropriate source of knowledge is located generally after solving knowledge coordination problems. In particular, knowledge is found to be sticky and contextualized as a result of which it might not be easily transferable. Further, the absorptive capacity of the individuals, units, or organizations seeking knowledge might either enable or inhibit their ability to make sense of the transferred knowledge.

The problem of knowledge reuse. This is a problem of motivation and reward related to the reuse of knowledge. This occurs when individuals or groups may prefer to devise a unique solution to a problem rather than reuse the standard knowledge available in repositories. Often, recognizing individuals for knowledge contributions such as rewarding contributions to the organizational document repository or rewarding individuals for being helpful in sharing their expertise appears to create disincentives to reuse of the knowledge, particularly when reuse involves explicitly acknowledging the inputs or assistance received.

Advances in information technologies and the growth of a knowledge-based service economy are transforming the basis of technological innovation and organizational performance. This transformation requires taking a broader, institutional and political view of information technology and knowledge management. To succeed, organizations need to focus on building their distinctive competencies Van de Ven, Law enforcement agencies, across the United States and other modern societies, have begun to focus on innovative knowledge management technologies to aid in the analysis of criminal information and knowledge.

The use of such. The development of information technologies during the past few years has enabled many organizations to improve both the understanding and the dissemination of information. The development of powerful databases allows information to be organized in a manner that improves access to it, increases speed of retrieval, and expands searching flexibility. However, limited security and access control on the Internet often prevent law enforcement agencies from using it. Information technology has certainly enhanced the capacity of police to collect, retrieve, and analyze information.

It has altered important aspects of the field of policing; it has redefined the value of communicative and technical resources, institutionalized accountability through built-in formats and procedures of reporting, and restructured the daily routines of operational policing. The impact of technology on the habitus of policing, however, appears to be much less substantial, according to Chan The advantage brought about by technologythe capacity for a more responsive and problem-oriented approach to policinghas not been fully exploited.

This is because operational polices technological frame sees information as relevant only for the purpose of arrest and conviction. While officers are aware of the potential for smarter policing approaches, the preference is still to focus on collecting evidence for law enforcement, rather than broader analysis for crime prevention. Technologies that support a traditional law enforcement style of policing are the most successful ones.

Where a more analytical approach is taken in relation to crime and intelligence, there is often a clash of cultures between police and analysts. Supervisors are aware of the capabilities that technology provides for better accountability and supervision, but these capabilities are also underutilized because they do not have time Chan, Introduction to Chapters The core chapters of Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques are organized according to the stages of growth model for knowledge management technology.

Generally, stages of. Specifically, the stages of growth model for knowledge management technology, developed by the author, has proven useful in both theoretical and empirical studies of knowledge intensive organizations Gottschalk, Knowledge management technology is simply defined as technology that supports knowledge work in organizations. According to the distinction between information and knowledge, computers handle information while persons handle knowledge. Knowledge management technology is technology that supports knowledge workers both at the individual level and at the organizational level.

An important implication of this understanding of knowledge management technology is that word processing tools, for example, are as much knowledge management technology as case-based reasoning systems. This book focuses on technology that can improve efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge work in law enforcement, rather than advanced technology as such.

There are several benefits from applying the four-stage model for knowledge management technology. It can explain the evolution of knowledge management technology in knowledge intensive organizations. Next, it can predict the direction for future knowledge management projects in organizations. Third, it can guide the accumulation of technologies and techniques as well as infrastructures and architectures to support more sophisticated applications of information technology over time.

The stages-of-growth model, consisting of four stages, is introduced in Chapter IV. The stages are applied in this book mainly as an organizing framework for systems classification, as it is too early to tell whether Stages 2, 3, and 4 are truly observed in the real knowledge management systems in law enforcement. Furthermore, what will happen after Stage 4 is not clear; maybe a more cyclical behavior will occur involving some or all of the stages.

The first stage in the growth model, Officer-to-Technology, is concerned with information technology tools available to police officers as knowledge workers. This stage is discussed in Chapter V. It can be argued that this first stage is a computer literacy stage, which is not really a stage for knowledge management. However, from the user perspective applied in definitions of knowledge and knowledge management technology, it should be clear that the first stage represents the foundation for IT supported knowledge work.

In Chapter V, investigative thinking styles of detectives are introduced. Here, distinctions are made between police investigation as method, investigation as challenge, investigation as skill, and investigation as risk. These thinking styles based on research by Dean , , , cause different knowledge.

Some of these requirements can be met at Stage 1 of the knowledge management technology stage model, while other requirements have to wait until the organization matures into higher stages. The second stage in the growth model, officer-to-officer, is concerned with communication between police officers, enabled and supported by information and communication technology.

This stage is discussed in Chapter VI. Again, to relate knowledge management systems to law enforcement work, as was done with thinking styles, this chapter describes police investigations in more detail, and exemplifies knowledge acquisition by police interviewing. The third stage in the growth model, officer-to-information, is concerned with the electronic storage and retrieval of information that is useful to police officers. This stage is discussed in Chapter VII. Knowledge acquisition is here exemplified by knowledge derived from eyewitnesses. The fourth and final stage in the growth model, officer-to-application, is concerned with the applications of artificial intelligence to police work to support police officers in their investigations.

Knowledge application in knowledge management systems is here exemplified in terms of offender profiling, and crossing and checking in police investigations. The law enforcement focus should enable the reader to appreciate the linkages between policing and technology. In Chapter V, on officer-to-technology systems, this is done by explaining different thinking styles that police officers are using in investigations. In Chapter VI on officer-to-officer systems, this is done by explaining police interviewing. In Chapter VII on officer-to-information systems, this is done by explaining the difficulties of interpreting eyewitness reports.

Also in Chapter VII, the resource-based view of policing is introduced, as knowledge codified into information is stored in computer at this Stage 3 of the stages of growth model. The organizing framework of the stages of growth model for knowledge management technology in law enforcement has, of course, limitations. For example, observable facts of Stages 2, 3, and even Stage 4 can occur in an IT-.

However, the main focus of knowledge management technology investments in an organization at any point in time will be found at one particular stage, rather than spread randomly across stages. Another limitation might be the sequential structure of the stage model. In reality, we will sometimes find cycles such as a return to Stage 3 after a preliminary visit to Stage 4, because the foundation for Stage 4 in terms of available information to be applied might emerge as not accessible.

However, such adoption of the model to different settings and purposes should be considered a challenge rather than a weakness. In Chapter I, police knowledge work is described. The chapter concludes with a section on ethical issues that are exemplified by investigative interviewing by police officers. Chapter II covers general topics on knowledge management, such as characteristics of knowledge, knowledge value levels, identification of knowledge needs, and classification of knowledge categories.

For those readers unfamiliar with the topic of knowledge management, this chapter provides important background material. Similarly, Chapter III provides important background material on the role of information technology in knowledge management. IT in knowledge management is presented in terms of knowledge management processes and knowledge management systems. Knowledge managements systems are exemplified by advanced technologies included in expert systems. After five chapters, IV-VIII, organizing knowledge management systems in law enforcement on the stages of growth model for knowledge management technology, Chapter IX provides another framework to understand the role and importance of knowledge management systems in law enforcement.

Chapter IX describes police work by applying the value configuration of value shop to police investigations. By applying the value shop, we can discuss problem solving in terms of primary activities in police investigations. Technologies and techniques can support each primary activity in law enforcement organizations as value shops. Law enforcement has to do with the law, and law firms are often involved on behalf of legal parties. Therefore, we take a look at knowledge management systems in law firms towards the end of this book, in Chapter X.

This extension of law enforcement into law firms is included in the book to exemplify other parts of the judicial system. This book focuses particularly on the work of police, while only marginally addressing the work of the judicial system or the penitentiary system, which might be considered important aspects of law enforcement and that also can benefit from employing knowledge management techniques. To compensate for this shortcoming, the Chapter X on knowledge management in law firms is an important extension of this book.

Law enforcement represents a variety of tasks in society.

Knowledge Management Systems in Law and Enforcement Gottschalk P | Knowledge Management | Police

In this book, we touch upon many tasks and aspects of policing. However, as our main focus we chose police investigation, which is one of the most knowledge intensive tasks in law enforcement. Case studies of law enforcement knowledge work in terms of research studies of police organizations are presented in the final chapter, XI. The empirical studies presented in this chapter illustrate some important dimensions of police work. References Ashby, D. Geocomputation, geodemographics and resource allocation for local policing.

Transactions in GIS, 9 1 , Chan, J. Police and new technologies. Newburn Ed. Portland, OR: Willan Publishing. Chen, H. Decision Support Systems, 34, Communications of the ACM , 46 1 , Dean, G. Police reform: Rethinking operational policing. American Journal of Criminal Justice , 23 4 , The experience of investigation for detectives. The cognitive psychology of police investigators. Gottschalk, P. Strategic knowledge management technology.

Hauck, R. Draft conference paper, University of Arizona.

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Hughes, V. The influence of technical, social and structural factors on the effective use of information in a policing environment. The Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 2 1 , Kahana, E. Mossad-CIA cooperation. International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 14, Lahneman, W. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 17, Luen, T. Knowledge management in the public sector: Principles and practices in police work. Journal of Information Science, 27 5 , Manning, P. Policing contingencies. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Manwani, S. The future of the IT organisation.

Creating an innovation-centric police department: Guidelines for knowledge management in policing. Sambamurthy, V. Special issue on information technologies and knowledge management. MIS Quarterly, 29 1 , ; and 29 2 , Van de Ven, A. Running in packs to develop knowledge-intensive technologies. MIS Quarterly, 29 2 , Without the help and support from experienced police officers, this book would have been impossible for me to write. I would like to thank five scholars in particular. First, Dr. Second, Mr. Ivar Fahsing at the Norwegian Police University College contributed research literature on eyewitness statements and investigative interviewing.

Third, I would like to thank Mr. Rune Glomseth at the Norwegian Police University College, who helped me find relevant research literature on police work, and who lets me teach executive classes in the Academy. Furthermore, Dr. Stefan Holgersson at the Stockholm Police in Sweden has provided some very useful material from his doctoral dissertation on police officers professional knowledge. Anne Puonti at the National Bureau of Investigation in Finland has provided some very useful material from her doctoral dissertation on police investigation.

Thanks to all of you! The public sector is turning to knowledge management, having recognized that they too face competition in funding and from alternative services. Increasingly, customers of the public sector are demanding higher service quality, particularly in the area of e-government. Services, particularly e-services, are expected to be available all the time with immediate response, simplified, and with one-stop processing. According to Luen and Al-Hawamdeh , knowledge management is thus a natural solution to improve operations and enhance customer service.

Large organizations around the world are implementing knowledge management. Knowledge management is a crucial element of policing that is subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations governing crime, evidence, legal precedent, and rules of police behavior and that needs to be shared. The activities and work carried out by police forces are increasingly in the areas of crime prevention as well as incident management, investigation, and community policing.

Crime prevention implies activities such as surveillance, patrolling, and guarding. These activities can be carried out through both reactive and proactive means. Reactive measures such as roadblocks, spot-checks, and Copyright , Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. Proactive measures include public education to help prevent crime. Police forces routinely use mass media as a means to convey crime prevention advice relating to current crime trends.

Police officers, performing both reactive and proactive measures effectively, will need to know the latest legal and policy directions regarding these functions, as well the latest information on crime trends and the corresponding knowledge about the detection and prevention of crime. In their study of the Singapore Police Force, Luen and Al-Hawamdeh found that the vast knowledge that police officers need in order to perform their normal duties required them to be proficient knowledge workers, being able to access, assimilate, and use knowledge effectively to discharge their duties.

In a UK study, five mechanisms for acquiring and maintaining knowledge in police forces were identified Collier et al. In a study in Sweden, Holgersson found that police performance is determined by professional knowledge and motivation. Work of police officers is knowledge-intensive. Sometimes, a police officer lacks the required knowledge to be able to take action in a policing situation. The functions of police in different countries vary. For example, the police in Norway also have administrative functions, apart from regular police work, that involve law enforcement, order maintenance, and service.

This makes them similar to their counterparts on the European continent, but in contrast to the USA, where these activities are under the purview of Secretary of State offices or municipal courts. In the administrative office of the police in Norway, people. Copyright , Idea Group Inc. Das and Robinson find the police in Norway exhibiting three distinct characteristics. They have unique narrative features like a flat hierarchy, strong union influence, and a system of pervasive intelligence. One can include among these features such minor matters as sharing a police gymnasium with the public, housing of police stations in rented private quarters, informal aspects of recruitment, and the role of police officers as prison guards.

Except for the prison guard function, such features appear to be purely native to Norway. Like most European police, the police in Norway are directed largely by a central authority, or national government. The Norwegian police demonstrate a strong British influence in the special focus that the police have on crime prevention, the fact that they do not bear arms, and the practice of police officers as prosecutors. Police Knowledge It is accepted that within the crime management portfolios of policing environments, the term intelligence and intelligence-led has become an accepted term within the lexicon of modern policing.

Hughes and Jackson suggest that the terms intelligence and knowledge can be used interchangeably. This suggestion is not without foundation when the two meanings are conceptualized. The overarching factor in knowledge creation is the human and social role in the application of expertise. While many definitions have been espoused to explain intelligence, the basic elements of the definitions relate to the creation of knowledge via the collection and analysis of data to inform decision making. The human and social role is, again, foremost in that an effective intelligence system requires an investment in people.

Holgersson studied the work practice of police officers and identified a variety of situations where knowledge is required. He described these situations in terms of knowledge applications. Examples of situations are showing victim empathy, prioritizing actions and resources, developing a suspicion, identifying potential suspects, communicating with persons and groups, understanding different kinds of language i. Luen and Al-Hawamdeh find that the amount of information that police officers come into contact with in the course of their work is astounding.

This and the vast knowledge that police officers need in order to perform their normal duties suggest the need for police officers to be proficient knowledge workers, being able to access, assimilate, and use knowledge effectively to discharge their duties. Presently, such information and knowledge are captured within police organizations in various forms, ranging from computer records to documented institutional orders to the personal experiences of its officers.

The crux of the issue is then how to surface such knowledge and bring it to bear on the problems faced by police officers in a timely and effective manner. This is where knowledge management principles and practices can help. With the increased adoption of information technology within police organizations, and the increasing overall quality and IT competence of police officers, police organizations are well positioned to leverage knowledge management principles and practices.

This, complemented by the enhanced skills, equipment, and empowerment given to the officers, will enable them to perform their duties at an optimal level. In discussing the scope of knowledge management in police work, Luen and Al-Hawamdeh take into consideration two categories of knowledge within the context of knowledge management. These two categories of knowledgeexplicit and tacit knowledgegive rise to different implementation approaches that are complementary rather than exclusive.

Both of these implementation approaches are necessary if the organization is to reap the full benefits of knowledge management. Explicit knowledge is used as guidance for police actions and decision making. Explicit knowledge is captured in the form of documents e. Examples of these documents include procedures of arrest, handling a fire scene, and illegal parking.

The second type of knowledge is implicit or tacit knowledge. This includes the competence, experience, and skill of police officers. Tacit knowledge is usually dynamic and fast changing as compared with documented knowledge. Documented or explicit knowledge is normally kept as routine records in official police documents. Examples of such documented information include crime threats, crime trends and statistics, criminal records, and situational information pertaining to the incident or crisis at hand.

Regarding tacit knowledge, the scope of knowledge management in police work is primarily in the areas of creating and sharing knowledge and information. The two main issues to be addressed here are the willingness of police officers to create and share knowledge, and the ability of police officers to create and share knowledge. According to Luen and Al-Hawamdeh , the more difficult issue to tackle is that of the willingness of police officers to create and share knowledge. There is a need for a culture characterized by openness, collaboration, and sharing among police officers.

This will require that police officers recognize the importance of collaboration and sharing knowledge with others. The responsibility to surface knowledge lies with everyone in the police force, as knowledge is generated in all phases of work. In analyzing the content of the knowledge surfaced, it is necessary to check the subject matter of the knowledge as to what issues it addresses in relation to existing policies and procedures, and whether such knowledge adds value for police officers. In assessing the complexity of the knowledge surfaced, it is necessary to check whether the knowledge is mostly explicit or tacit in nature.

Explicit knowledge can be documented in writing with little loss in interpretation and understanding, while tacit knowledge tends to be difficult to document comprehensively due to its scope and nature. Effective knowledge management is dependent on a knowledge-centered culture.

Therefore, an organizations culture should provide support and incentives as well as encourage knowledge-related activities by creating environments for knowledge exchange and accessibility. In police investigations, experienced officers not only check for a more complex and integrated set of traits, but they emphasize stable, generalized clues, and actually look for fewer clues than recruits, according to Fielding Experienced officers have a more established idea of the important clues that are then linked to lower-order clues. It has also been found that, compared to appearance, behavior is much more likely to be the basis of a classification of suspiciousness.

Analysis of police competence must acknowledge that police work aggravates several factors known to limit accurate judgment, for example, sources of. An interesting example of knowledge acquisition in police investigations is interrogation. Interrogation is concerned with the questioning of person s suspected of a crime by police. Interrogation is to ask questions of a person, especially closely, thoroughly, and formally. In most criminal justice systems there is a frequent reliance on confession evidence, and in some cases it may be the only evidence.

To understand interrogation in terms of investigative interviewing, Crawshaw, Devlin, and Williamson find it necessary to place the interviewing of victims, witnesses, or suspects in the context of the investigation. In some case, the investigator may find that the victim is dead; there are no witnesses to the offence; the witnesses are too afraid to give evidence or information; or there may be no forensic evidence. In such cases, the investigator has to rely on obtaining a confession from a suspect, and this is acceptable in those jurisdictions where a person may be found guilty by a court on the basis of an uncorroborated confession.

Since most interviews take place in private where the suspect is alone with the interviewers and there is no independent record of what happened, there is a temptation for law enforcement officials to resort to physical and psychological abuse of the detainee in many countries. Sometimes the reasons for this can be understood, but such action is never justifiable.

In most investigations, it is normally the case that there are victims and witnesses from whom information can be obtained. Rather than overrelying on confession evidence, steps can be taken to identify witnesses who may be able to provide such relevant information. Sometimes enquiries for this purpose have to be made a considerable time after the event, and a number of methods have been found to be successful in tracing witnesses. For example, house to house enquiries, the methodological visiting of all premises in the vicinity of a crime in order to establish whether occupants are able to provide relevant information; appeals for witnesses through the news media; the distribution of leaflets giving details of a crime and appealing for information; dramatized reconstructions of a crime on television programs.

Forensic science can contribute greatly to investigations. In some countries, techniques may be basic but nevertheless sound, for example, the physical as opposed to technological comparison of fingerprints found at the scene of a crime with those in a collection of previously convicted criminals. Regardless of the degree of sophistication of techniques or facilities available, it is essential that police officials should be aware of them and maximize their use in order that they may be able to conduct an investigation that does not rely solely on confession evidence.

A fundamental flaw is created in many investigations when the investigator secures a confession from a suspect at an early stage, and then attempts to establish a case against the suspect by selectively building up supporting evidence around the confession. The key word here is selectively, for it means that the investigator is prepared to ignore, and even conceal, evidence, that does not support the case against the accused.

This can be fatal to the proper conclusion of any investigation, but especially so if the suspect has falsely confessed to a crime that he or she has not committed. If a person is convicted of a crime on the basis of evidence produced by such an investigation, a double miscarriage of justice occurs: the wrongful conviction of any innocent person, and the avoidance of justice by the real author of the crime. It is more professional and more ethical to approach the case scientifically and with an open mind, and to gather information systematically. In order for an investigation conducted on this basis to be successful, it is essential that each step of the investigation should be documented Crawshaw et al.

The most important asset of a law enforcement agency is personnel. There are two main reasons why. Unlike private sector business, which provides a tangible product, law enforcement provides a unique, monopolistic service. This service is reflected in the widely recognized motto that appears on many local police cars in the U. Regardless of the level of technology an agency may employ, the service performed is still delivered through interaction of agency personnel with clientele. In law enforcement, that interaction is frequently of a very personal nature Bradford, The second reason personnel are the most valuable asset of a law enforcement agency is that employees make the real policy of an agency by discretionary decisions made during the performance of their duties.

Police officers are examples of discretionary policy makers. The argument can be made that management controls the discretionary policy making ability of officers by imposing strict guidelines through standard operating procedures and regulations. Yet, law enforcement agency administrators continually remind the troops that they are the agency, and that the agency reputation is made by their public contacts Bradford, The job effectiveness of police officers as human service professionals largely depends on the way in which they interact with civilians.

These professionals are particularly challenged when conflicts occur with or among civilians. Dominance plays an important part in police-civilian interaction. Police officers have to cope with conflicts when civilians violate rules and regulations, and they have to maintain order. Also, police officers regularly have to intervene in conflicts between civilians.

Dominant behavior by the police is often required, including in conflict situations. However, a demonstration of police power usually has escalating effects. Offenders feel intimidated or even provoked by dominance. For example, officers arriving at a scene where they have to interact with civilians, leaning out of their car window, directly commanding young people, or approaching people with their hands on their weapon, are experienced as highly dominant, unpleasant, and provocative.

Also, in the case of intervention in conflicts between civilians, the calming down of parties is not likely to be achieved by a dominant approach of the police officer. The primary instruction in much police training, therefore, is to arrive at the scene calmly. Acting in a dominant way increases the risk of raised emotions and aggression shifting from the original parties towards the police Euwema et al.

When one thinks about the investigation of a crime as a process of assembling knowledge, one begins to recognize the premise that police are knowledge workers. The basic sets of raw materials that police work with are information and interactions with people. How the police deal with these materials is determined by a variety of factors, such as the skills and education police have Fraser, Knowledge and Evidence A distinction that is helpful to understanding the variety of forms that investigative practice takes is that between two basic objectives or tasks: the generation of police knowledge, and the production of evidence.

This has the advantage that it draws attention to the centrality of the gathering and manipulation of Copyright , Idea Group Inc. It also adds a new dimension to the notion of investigation as essentially a process of construction Maguire, Knowledge here refers primarily to the conclusions and understandings reached by the police as to what crimes have been or are likely to be committed, by whom, how, and why.

Numerous factors can play a part in shaping this knowledge, including a host of information sources, and the perceptual lenses and prejudices of those receiving them. Evidence refers to material that may be presented in court to help establish whether an alleged criminal offence has been committed, and whether an accused person committed it. The main forms it takes are physical traces linking a person to a particular offence, statements by victims or witnesses, and responses by suspects to questioning in interviews. Its production requires skill and care, and is surrounded by rules designed to ensure that it has been obtained fairly and is presented to the court in a valid form.

These tasks can be undertaken in different orders or different combinations. Investigators will sometimes start with a specific offence and seek to find out who committed it. At other times, they will start by identifying suspected Copyright , Idea Group Inc. Often, the various tasks will become blurred within the same inquiry, as we will see in iterative working styles in the value shop later in this book. The odds were against him. Yet in less than two years, and without an increase in his budget, Bill Bratton turned New York into the safest large city of the nation, according to Kim and Mauborgne Research conducted by Kim and Mauborgne led them to conclude that Brattons turnaround was an example of tipping-point leadership.

The theory of tipping point hinges on the insight that in any organization, once the beliefs and energies of a critical mass of people are engaged, conversion to a new idea will spread like an epidemic, bringing about fundamental change very quickly. The theory suggests that such a movement can be unleashed only by agents who make unforgettable and unarguable calls for change, who concentrate their resources on what really matters, who mobilize the commitment of the organizations key players, and who succeed in silencing the most vocal naysayers.

Bratton did all of these things. Kim and Maugorgne find that in many turnarounds, the hardest battle is simply getting people to agree on the causes of current problems and the need for change. Most CEOs try to make the case for change simply by pointing to the numbers and insisting that the company can achieve better ones.

But messages communicated through numbers seldom stick. Bratton , p. New York City is a much safer place now and will remain so. Tipping-point leaders do not rely on numbers to break through the organizations cognitive hurdles. Instead, they put their key managers face-to-face with the operational problems so that the managers cannot evade reality. Poor performance becomes something they witness rather than hear about. Communicating in this way means that the messageperformance is poor and needs to be. Leaders like Bratton use a four-step process to bring about rapid, dramatic, and lasting change with limited resources.

Tipping all four hurdles leads to rapid strategy reorientation and execution: Cognitive hurdle. Put managers face-to-face with problems and customers. Find new ways to communicate. Resource hurdle. Focus on the hot spots and bargain with partner organizations. Motivational hurdle. Put the stage lights on and frame the challenge to match the organizations various levels. Political hurdle. Identify and silence internal opponents; isolate external ones. By addressing these hurdles to tipping-point change, leaders will stand a chance of achieving the same kind of results as Bratton delivered to the citizens of New York.

Police Intelligence A special branch of police work that seems extremely knowledge intensive is police intelligence.

Knowledge Management Report

Lahneman suggests that intelligence agencies were the worlds first knowledge companies. Managing knowledge has always been the primary mission of the intelligence communitys leadership. Accordingly, the intelligence community can benefit substantially from knowledge management approaches. According to Lahneman , the intelligence community is now understood to have possessed several pieces of intelligence information that, in retrospect, might have warned of the September 11, terrorist attacks on Washington, D.

But, while U. Experience so far with knowledge management indicates that two necessary conditions must prevail for improving knowledge sharing. First, given the volume of knowledge that the intelligence community must possess, the use of large-scale IT systems in handling relevant information is essential.

Second, successful knowledge management depends on developing an organizational culture that facilitates and rewards knowledge sharing. In the absence of either of these components, knowledge management initiatives will fail. The intelligence community has taken a number of steps in both areas to improve knowledge sharing.

Several agencies have embarked on innovative, large-scale projects to upgrade their IT capabilities. The intelligence community has also experienced several high-level organizational changes and proposals for organizational change. In Norway, the Police Security Service replaced the Police Surveillance Service, changing its focus from radical elements based on politics to violent elements based on religion. In the U. The centre will fuse all appropriate information, and send summary reports to the Department of Homeland Security.

Knowledge collection activities require coordination to make sure that collected knowledge gets to the right persons at the right time. They also need oversight to ensure that each agencys collection assets are so employed that the collection of potentially useful knowledge is optimized. Optimizing knowledge sharing where intelligence analysis is concerned can be more difficult because, unlike collection efforts, coordination is increasingly interagency in nature.

Analysis related to terrorism and, in particular, terrorism against the U. Intelligence communities of different nations share information and knowledge. Intelligence activities usually remain secret, especially when the communities of different countries are involved. One known example is the cooperation.

Therefore, providing information may at times be one-sided. According to Kahana , there has been an obvious interest not to provide information, and even to block it, in several cases. For example, the United States was reluctant to provide the Mossad with satellite photographs about what was happening in peripheral Arab countries. Israel, for its part, tried to stop surveillance by the U. Agency Theory of Police Work Agency theory has broadened the risk-sharing literature to include the agency problem that occurs when cooperating parties have different goals and division of labor.

The cooperating parties are engaged in an agency relationship defined as a contract under which one or more persons the principal s engage another person agent to perform some service on their behalf that involves delegating some decision-making authority to the agent. Agency theory describes the relationship between the two parties using the metaphor of a contract. According to Eisenhardt , agency theory is concerned with resolving two problems that occur in agency relationships.

The first is the agency problem that arises when the desires or goals of the principal and agent conflict, and it is difficult or expensive for the principal to verify what the agent is actually doing. The second is the problem of risk sharing that arises when the principal and agent have different risk preferences.

The common element to principalagent models is that principals are unable to monitor agents actions or information; the heart of these models involves setting a wage for an agent without fully knowing the agents effort moral hazard or ability adverse selection. Brehm and Gates applied agency theory to police work. They examined police supervision through an empirical analysis of the behavior of police officers with respect to their supervisors orders.

They found that some principal-agency models lead to strong predictions about the possible shape of distribution of compliance by police subordinates. Police Performance Police performance is a complicated construct. The police reform in the UK has developed some performance indicators for policing within an assessment framework. The policing performance assessment framework is an initiative led by the Home Office a , with the support of the Association of Chief Police Officers, and the Association of Police Authorities. The guidance on statutory performance indicators for policing includes user satisfaction measures, confidence measures, fairness, equality and diversity measures, measures of crime level, offences brought to justice measures, sanction detection measures, domestic violence measures, traffic measures, quality of life measures, frontline policing measures, and resource use measures.

One of the resource use measures is delivery of cashable and noncashable efficiency target. A cashable gain is where a particular level of output of a particular quality is achieved for less cost. In , there was a debate in the UK whether to allow and stimulate direct entry into police management. According to Leishman and Savage , it was a fundamental fact of the British police service that everyone had to start at the bottom, at the lowest rank of constable, in which office all entrants must serve a minimum period of two years.

On the surface, then, the police service may appear to occupy a unique position among public sector organizations as an apparently egalitarian meritocracy in which all confirmed constables could be said to have the opportunity to aspire to senior management positions. At that time, chief constables were the first generation of completely self-made chiefs, lacking even the middle-class socialization of university, although most went to grammar schools.

Leishman and Savage argue that there are two important reasons in favor of direct entry. First, direct entry offers potential for the active furtherance of equal opportunities in the British police service. Whereas in Britain, target attainment would depend on the numbers of officers remaining in the service beyond their two year probationary period, and then progressing through the rank of sergeant, this was not the case in Holland.

Its system of direct entry, coupled with an explicit policy of positive action, allowed the recruitment and training of sufficient numbers of women and ethnic minority candidates directly into the rank of inspector, to achieve minimum targets within the timescale agreed. A second argument in favor of direct entry followed, in a sense, part of the rationale for civilianization within the service.

While much of this process had been driven by the pursuit of economies, behind it also was the question of competences and specialist skills. According to Jackson and Wade , the understanding of police behavior, especially proactive behavior, has been pursued throughout policing history. Researchers have examined the impact of environmental factors i. Despite all of these research efforts, most if not all of the authors contributing to this line of research have concluded that the categorization, understanding,.

Researchers have examined empirically and conceptually the impact of social capital and police sense of responsibility on police behavior. For example, community social capital has been identified in the literature as having a significant impact on police behavior mainly because social capital serves as a measure of the communitys ability to solve its own problems.

In communities with low social capital, police may perceive themselves as the only form of social order and may, therefore, develop a higher sense of responsibility towards protecting citizens, themselves, and preventing crime. Jackson and Wade suggest that the examination of police sense of responsibility towards the community may be important in understanding police behavior. This assertion implies that police sense of responsibility may serve as an influential variable in explaining why police may demonstrate higher levels of proactive policing in communities with low social capital in comparison to those with high social capital.

Police sense of responsibility toward the community seems important for understanding how police function in areas under their command. In communities where crime is commonplace, police can become overwhelmed and may therefore focus on more serious crimes that pose a greater threat to police and citizen safety, and ignore the lower level crimes that do not.

Given these arguments, the major purpose of the study conducted by Jackson and Wade was to examine the relationship between police perception of their communitys social capital and their sense of responsibility toward the provision of public safety and, in turn, to assess empirically the impact of sense of responsibility on their propensity to engage in proactive policing. By studying police perceptions of social capital and their sense of responsibility, it was possible to not only understand why community policing is or is not successful, but more importantly it was possible to understand police behavior in environments that by their structural and demographic make-up, complicate the task of effective policing.

Jackson and Wades findings support the hypothesis that police who indicate a more negative perception of community social capital are more likely to indicate a higher sense of responsibility towards the community. This finding suggests that as the police perception of community social capital becomes negative, they are more likely to rely upon their own resources to solve community problems.

Generally, the only real resources that police possess in low social capital communities are their law enforcement powers. Another finding was police who express a more negative perception of community social capital were more likely to indicate higher levels of proactive behavior. This finding suggests that in communities with low social capital, police may utilize their law enforcement powers more in comparison to communities that posses higher levels of social capital.

The data gathered through a questionnaire distributed among the Kansas City Police Department in the U. Police proactive behavior includes new patrol techniques, increased utilization of technology, the organization of specialized units, and the use of criminal profiling. By being more proactive, police are conducting more stop-and-frisk contacts, requesting proof of identification more frequently, conducting more drug sweeps, and dispersing citizens who gather to protest public policies of various kinds.

Proactive policing might perpetuate and exacerbate the social distance rift between the police and their community, and it also increases the likelihood that an officer may abuse his or her authority. In a time period of three years, Prince Georges County in the U. The increasing costs resulting from payouts in police litigation cases and liability claims, coupled with increased pressure from public insurance pools to cut losses, are a few of the reasons that some U.

Risk management is a process used to identify and control exposure to potential risks and liabilities in both private and public organizations. Almost all of the basic duties of police work expose police officers to liability incidents on a daily basis. One aspect of police work that makes it unique to all other professions is the ability of police officers to use lethal and nonlethal force.

This unique aspect of police work also contributes to police officer exposure to high levels of risk that could lead to litigation, liability claims, or citizen complaints Archbold, Police personnel face some of societys most serious problems, often work in dangerous settings, and are typically expected to react quickly and, at the same time, correctly.

They must adapt to an occupation in which one moment may bring the threat of death, while other extended periods bring routine and boredom. They are expected to maintain control in chaotic situations involving injustice, public apathy, conflicting roles, injuries, and fatalities. Yet they are expected by both the public and their peers to approach these situations in an Copyright , Idea Group Inc.

The nature of work in police professions requires optimal mental health. When their mental functioning is compromised, police professionals can lose touch with the common sense and resilience they need to minimize stress, enjoy their work, and operate at peak performance. Over time, Kelley finds that poor mental health can dramatically increase police officers proneness to physical illness, emotional disorders, accidents, marital and family problems, excessive drinking and drug use, suicide, and litigation ranging from excessive force and false arrest, to failure to provide appropriate protection and services.

Ethical Issues We will conclude this chapter by touching upon the topic of human rights and policing. According to Crawshaw et al. The international instruments by the United Nations and other organizations are intended to provide basic protection from physical or psychological abuse. That still leaves open the question, what is good interviewing?

The specific purpose of the discussion by Crawshaw et al. Firstly, it is necessary to place the interviewing of victims, witnesses, or suspects in the context of the investigation. In some cases, the investigator may find that the victim is dead; there are no witnesses to the offence; the witnesses are too afraid to give evidence or information; or there may be no forensic evidence.

Since most interviews take place in private, where the suspect is alone with the interviewers and there is no independent record of what happened, there is a. Sometimes the reasons for this can be understood, but such action is never, ever, justifiable. In the introduction to the special issue, Sambamurthy and Subramani presented three types of organizational problems where knowledge management systems can make a difference:. Individuals or groups face knowledge coordination problems when the knowledge needed to diagnose and solve a problem or make an appropriate decision exists or is believed to exist , but knowledge about its existence or location is not available to the individual or group.

Knowledge coordination problems require a search for expertise, and are aided by an understanding of patterns of knowledge distribution of who knows what and who can be asked for help. Research suggests that personal, social, or organizational networks facilitate awareness about knowing entities and their possession of knowledge.

Similarly, information technologies can facilitate the efficient and effective nurturing of communities of practice through which distributed knowledge can be coordinated. The problem of knowledge transfer. This problem is often faced by individuals or groups once an appropriate source of knowledge is located generally after solving knowledge coordination problems. In particular, knowledge is found to be sticky and contextualized as a result of which it might not be easily transferable.

Further, the absorptive capacity of the individuals, units, or organizations seeking knowledge might either enable or inhibit their ability to make sense of the transferred knowledge. The problem of knowledge reuse. This is a problem of motivation and reward related to the reuse of knowledge. This occurs when individuals or groups may prefer to devise a unique solution to a problem rather than reuse the standard knowledge available in repositories.


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Often, recognizing individuals for knowledge contributions such as rewarding contributions to the organizational document repository or rewarding individuals for being helpful in sharing their expertise appears to create disincentives to reuse of the knowledge, particularly when reuse involves explicitly acknowledging the inputs or assistance received.

Advances in information technologies and the growth of a knowledge-based service economy are transforming the basis of technological innovation and organizational performance. This transformation requires taking a broader, institutional and political view of information technology and knowledge management.

Knowledge Management Systems In Law Enforcement Technologies And Techniques

To succeed, organizations need to focus on building their distinctive competencies Van de Ven, Law enforcement agencies, across the United States and other modern societies, have begun to focus on innovative knowledge management technologies to aid in the analysis of criminal information and knowledge. The use of such. The development of information technologies during the past few years has enabled many organizations to improve both the understanding and the dissemination of information. The development of powerful databases allows information to be organized in a manner that improves access to it, increases speed of retrieval, and expands searching flexibility.

However, limited security and access control on the Internet often prevent law enforcement agencies from using it. Information technology has certainly enhanced the capacity of police to collect, retrieve, and analyze information. It has altered important aspects of the field of policing; it has redefined the value of communicative and technical resources, institutionalized accountability through built-in formats and procedures of reporting, and restructured the daily routines of operational policing.

The impact of technology on the habitus of policing, however, appears to be much less substantial, according to Chan The advantage brought about by technology the capacity for a more responsive and problem-oriented approach to policing has not been fully exploited. This is because operational police s technological frame sees information as relevant only for the purpose of arrest and conviction.

Knowledge Management Basics - Learn and Gain - A quick Overview

While officers are aware of the potential for smarter policing approaches, the preference is still to focus on collecting evidence for law enforcement, rather than broader analysis for crime prevention. Technologies that support a traditional law enforcement style of policing are the most successful ones. Where a more analytical approach is taken in relation to crime and intelligence, there is often a clash of cultures between police and analysts.

Supervisors are aware of the capabilities that technology provides for better accountability and supervision, but these capabilities are also underutilized because they do not have time Chan, Introduction to Chapters The core chapters of Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques are organized according to the stages of growth model for knowledge management technology.

Generally, stages of. Specifically, the stages of growth model for knowledge management technology, developed by the author, has proven useful in both theoretical and empirical studies of knowledge intensive organizations Gottschalk, Knowledge management technology is simply defined as technology that supports knowledge work in organizations. According to the distinction between information and knowledge, computers handle information while persons handle knowledge.

Knowledge management technology is technology that supports knowledge workers both at the individual level and at the organizational level.


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An important implication of this understanding of knowledge management technology is that word processing tools, for example, are as much knowledge management technology as case-based reasoning systems. This book focuses on technology that can improve efficiency and effectiveness of knowledge work in law enforcement, rather than advanced technology as such.

There are several benefits from applying the four-stage model for knowledge management technology. It can explain the evolution of knowledge management technology in knowledge intensive organizations. Next, it can predict the direction for future knowledge management projects in organizations. Third, it can guide the accumulation of technologies and techniques as well as infrastructures and architectures to support more sophisticated applications of information technology over time. The stages-of-growth model, consisting of four stages, is introduced in Chapter IV.

The stages are applied in this book mainly as an organizing framework for systems classification, as it is too early to tell whether Stages 2, 3, and 4 are truly observed in the real knowledge management systems in law enforcement. Furthermore, what will happen after Stage 4 is not clear; maybe a more cyclical behavior will occur involving some or all of the stages. The first stage in the growth model, Officer-to-Technology, is concerned with information technology tools available to police officers as knowledge workers. This stage is discussed in Chapter V. It can be argued that this first stage is a computer literacy stage, which is not really a stage for knowledge management.

However, from the user perspective applied in definitions of knowledge and knowledge management technology, it should be clear that the first stage represents the foundation for IT supported knowledge work. In Chapter V, investigative thinking styles of detectives are introduced. Here, distinctions are made between police investigation as method, investigation as challenge, investigation as skill, and investigation as risk.

These thinking styles based on research by Dean , , , cause different knowledge. Some of these requirements can be met at Stage 1 of the knowledge management technology stage model, while other requirements have to wait until the organization matures into higher stages. The second stage in the growth model, officer-to-officer, is concerned with communication between police officers, enabled and supported by information and communication technology. This stage is discussed in Chapter VI. Again, to relate knowledge management systems to law enforcement work, as was done with thinking styles, this chapter describes police investigations in more detail, and exemplifies knowledge acquisition by police interviewing.

The third stage in the growth model, officer-to-information, is concerned with the electronic storage and retrieval of information that is useful to police officers. This stage is discussed in Chapter VII. Knowledge acquisition is here exemplified by knowledge derived from eyewitnesses. The fourth and final stage in the growth model, officer-to-application, is concerned with the applications of artificial intelligence to police work to support police officers in their investigations. Knowledge application in knowledge management systems is here exemplified in terms of offender profiling, and crossing and checking in police investigations.

The law enforcement focus should enable the reader to appreciate the linkages between policing and technology. In Chapter V, on officer-to-technology systems, this is done by explaining different thinking styles that police officers are using in investigations. In Chapter VI on officer-to-officer systems, this is done by explaining police interviewing.

In Chapter VII on officer-to-information systems, this is done by explaining the difficulties of interpreting eyewitness reports. Also in Chapter VII, the resource-based view of policing is introduced, as knowledge codified into information is stored in computer at this Stage 3 of the stages of growth model. The organizing framework of the stages of growth model for knowledge management technology in law enforcement has, of course, limitations.

For example, observable facts of Stages 2, 3, and even Stage 4 can occur in an IT-. However, the main focus of knowledge management technology investments in an organization at any point in time will be found at one particular stage, rather than spread randomly across stages. Another limitation might be the sequential structure of the stage model. In reality, we will sometimes find cycles such as a return to Stage 3 after a preliminary visit to Stage 4, because the foundation for Stage 4 in terms of available information to be applied might emerge as not accessible.

However, such adoption of the model to different settings and purposes should be considered a challenge rather than a weakness. In Chapter I, police knowledge work is described. The chapter concludes with a section on ethical issues that are exemplified by investigative interviewing by police officers. Chapter II covers general topics on knowledge management, such as characteristics of knowledge, knowledge value levels, identification of knowledge needs, and classification of knowledge categories.

For those readers unfamiliar with the topic of knowledge management, this chapter provides important background material. Similarly, Chapter III provides important background material on the role of information technology in knowledge management. IT in knowledge management is presented in terms of knowledge management processes and knowledge management systems. Knowledge managements systems are exemplified by advanced technologies included in expert systems. After five chapters, IV-VIII, organizing knowledge management systems in law enforcement on the stages of growth model for knowledge management technology, Chapter IX provides another framework to understand the role and importance of knowledge management systems in law enforcement.

Chapter IX describes police work by applying the value configuration of value shop to police investigations. By applying the value shop, we can discuss problem solving in terms of primary activities in police investigations. Technologies and techniques can support each primary activity in law enforcement organizations as value shops.

Law enforcement has to do with the law, and law firms are often involved on behalf of legal parties. Therefore, we take a look at knowledge management systems in law firms towards the end of this book, in Chapter X. This extension of law enforcement into law firms is included in the book to exemplify other parts of the judicial system. To compensate for this shortcoming, the Chapter X on knowledge management in law firms is an important extension of this book.

Law enforcement represents a variety of tasks in society. In this book, we touch upon many tasks and aspects of policing. However, as our main focus we chose police investigation, which is one of the most knowledge intensive tasks in law enforcement. Case studies of law enforcement knowledge work in terms of research studies of police organizations are presented in the final chapter, XI. The empirical studies presented in this chapter illustrate some important dimensions of police work.

References Ashby, D. Geocomputation, geodemographics and resource allocation for local policing. Police and new technologies. Newburn Ed. Portland, OR: Willan Publishing. Chen, H. Decision Support Systems, 34, Chen, H. Police reform: Rethinking operational policing.

The experience of investigation for detectives. Dean, G. The cognitive psychology of police investigators. An Open and Safe Europe What s next? You will study the underlying. Published by Jossey-Bass,. Agenda Item No. This report outlines the Force s current position in relation to the. Printed by the Uganda Printing and Publishing Corporation,.

Sport and Sports Betting Integrity Action Plan Britain s approach to address risks to the integrity of sport and sports betting Version 2. Preface This book provides a socio-technical view of enterprise resource planning ERP selection and implementation practices from a global perspective. The emphasis of this book is not on the technology. National Threats Capacity and contribution Instructional Technology Capstone Project Standards and Guidelines The Committee recognizes the fact that each EdD program is likely to articulate some requirements that are unique.

What follows are a. Mission The mission of the Curry College Master of Arts in MACJ program is to provide students with the intellectual and pragmatic skills needed to become effective leaders, reflective practitioners,. Catalog Description a. Course Number: MGT b. Title: Employee. Justice Systems Integration: A Definition by Steve Prisoc Abstract This paper examines various types of justice systems integration implementations and provides a working definition of integration. PhD in Information Studies Goals The goals of the PhD Program in Information Studies are to produce highly qualified graduates for careers in research, teaching, and leadership in the field; to contribute.

Holmes, Central Michigan University, holme1mc cmich. Comstock-Davidson, Central Michigan University, comst1dd cmich.

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These Guidelines set out a process by which a prosecutor may discuss an allegation of serious or complex. Kolodney and Paul K. Wormeli Public Systems incorporated For years, national and state authorities, commissions and hearings. Introduction Knowledge is a new form of renewable and intangible energy that is transforming many organizations. Awarding Institution: Nottingham Trent University 2.

Statement of the Problem 1 II. Object of the Research 2 III. Purpose of the Research 2 IV. Methodology of the Research 3 V. Structure of the Research. Purpose II. Definitions III. Goal IV. Program Objectives V. Program Elements VI. Field Training. This guidance has been prepared by the Government departments. Beaubien, Providence College John Wiley. The past and present scope of innovation During the last two decades,. CyberSheath Healthcare Compliance Paper www. IBM Content Analytics: Rapid insight for crime investigation Discover insights in structured and unstructured information to speed case and identity resolution Highlights Reduces investigation time from.

Based on research conducted at the University of Arizona. Standards for Quality Assurance. Awarding institution Middlesex University 3. Metro och den svenska dagstidningsmarknaden [A Paper for Its Time? Metro and. Forensic Psychology is the application of psychological insights, concepts and skills to the understanding and functioning of the legal and. Lam lblkt ust. Log in Registration. Search for.

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Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques
Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques
Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques
Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques
Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques
Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques
Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques
Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques Knowledge Management Systems in Law Enforcement: Technologies and Techniques

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