I grew up in Los Angeles, the city by the freeway by the sea. Maybe transform them all into double-decker highways with cars zooming on the upper and lower levels. The concept is called induced demand, which is economist-speak for when increasing the supply of something like roads makes people want that thing even more. Though some traffic engineers made note of this phenomenon at least as early as the s, it is only in recent years that social scientists have collected enough data to show how this happens pretty much every time we build new roads.
But before we get to the solutions, we have to take a closer look at the problem. In , two economists— Matthew Turner of the University of Toronto and Gilles Duranton of the University of Pennsylvania—decided to compare the amount of new roads and highways built in different U. If a city had increased its road capacity by 10 percent between and , then the amount of driving in that city went up by 10 percent.
If the amount of roads in the same city then went up by 11 percent between and , the total number of miles driven also went up by 11 percent. Maybe traffic engineers in U. But Turner and Duranton think that's unlikely. The modern interstate network mostly follows the plan originally conceived by the federal government in , and it seems incredibly coincidental that road engineers at the time could have successfully predicted driving demand more than half a century in the future.
A more likely explanation, Turner and Duranton argue, is what they call the fundamental law of road congestion : New roads will create new drivers, resulting in the intensity of traffic staying the same. Intuitively, I would expect the opposite: that expanding a road network works like replacing a small pipe with a bigger one, allowing the water or cars to flow better.
Instead, it's like the larger pipe is drawing more water into itself. The first thing you wonder here is where all these extra drivers are coming from.
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I mean, are they just popping out of the asphalt as engineers lay down new roads? The answer has to do with what roads allow people to do: move around. As it turns out, we humans love moving around. Making driving easier also means that people take more trips in the car than they otherwise would. Finally, businesses that rely on roads will swoop into cities with many of them, bringing trucking and shipments.
As long as driving on the roads remains easy and cheap, people have an almost unlimited desire to use them.
You might think that increasing investment in public transit could ease this mess. Many railway and bus projects are sold on this basis, with politicians promising that traffic will decrease once ridership grows.
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Sleek and responsive, it has clear graphics and a portrait format that makes reading information and maps easy. The 9-inch touch screen is so responsive you can use it wearing gloves. Interaction is intuitive in the XC The digital driver display behind the steering wheel puts important information directly in front of you, and automatically adjusts brightness to the surrounding light conditions. Volvo On Call is the app that connects your phone, tablet or wearable device with your XC90 to make your car an even more useful part of your life. And as new services are added to Volvo On Call regularly, our latest innovations will be available at the swipe of a finger.
The 19 speakers include a unique subwoofer that draws air in from outside the car to create deep, rich bass and a dash-mounted tweeter that faces into the cabin to minimize acoustic reflection. Three room modes — including Gothenburg Concert Hall — allow you to adapt the sound to your music or mood, while stainless steel speaker grilles and distinctive yellow speaker cones make this an audio system that looks as good as it sounds. The Harman Kardon Premium Sound system gives you a powerful audio experience.
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Its 14 speakers are individually monitored and adjusted, so everyone hears the best possible sound. Refined and relaxing, the XC90 offers first-class comfort however long the journey. Double wishbone front suspension and our innovative integral link rear axle ensure that the XC90 responds precisely and rides smoothly. The XC90 offers a choice of drive modes, for a driving experience to match the road and your mood. A fifth mode, Individual, allows you to combine characteristics to create your own mode.
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The interior of the XC90 is as practical as it is beautiful. Details such as shopping bag hooks and securing straps stop your bags from sliding around, while eyelets in the floor and a cargo net help secure larger items.
follow link The XC90 offers luxury for up to seven, with a choice of four, six or seven seats, each designed for maximum comfort. The driver and passenger seats are available with massage and ventilation functions, while the second and third rows are raised above the ones in front to give their occupants a better view ahead.
The new six-seat version adds a sense of space and luxury to the second-row seats also slide and recline individually. Designed for safety and ease, our seven-seat configuration offers an integrated booster seat in the second row. Range-topping T8 Twin Engine models use powerful plug-in hybrid powertrains that combine effortless performance with a drive mode to suit every need.
Pilot Assist makes driving in heavy traffic less tiring. As well as keeping your XC90 at a set speed and distance to the vehicle in front of you, it gently steers to keep you in the center of the lane and provides a gentle vibration through the steering wheel to let you know that the technology is active.
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Pilot Assist works at speeds up to 80mph, and is particularly helpful in highway conditions. It allows you to see objects or vehicles that may be hard to spot using only the windows and mirrors and is especially useful when negotiating tight spaces. Park Assist Pilot helps you park perfectly, every time.
It uses sensors to gauge the size of spaces as you drive by them, and lets you know if one is big enough. It can then steer the car into a parallel space just 1. Your XC90 will do the rest. Cross Traffic Alert helps you reverse out of a parking space with increased awareness by warning you of potential road users directly behind you. City Safety helps to protect people inside and outside the car, day or night.
This innovation — which is standard for every XC90 — identifies potential hazards such as other vehicles, cyclists, pedestrians and large animals ahead. It also includes Steering Support, which helps you to steer away from danger as effectively and safely as possible. The XC90 helps to make one of the most common types of collision — when a vehicle leaves the road — less likely to happen.
Run-off road Mitigation detects if the car is about to leave the road unintentionally between mph and can then use steering and, if necessary, brake support to guide the car back onto the right path. If the car does leave the road, an energy-absorbing structure in the front seat cushions vertical impact to reduce the chance of serious injury in the event of a hard landing.
Get more from your XC90 with our useful accessories. An electrically operated towbar slides under the car when not in use. A steel grille provides a sturdy barrier between passenger and load compartments. Add a load compartment divider and a dog gate for safe and secure pet travel. Other accessories are available that are designed to help protect both the seats and load compartment to keep them looking like new.
Add your own finishing touches to the XC90 with our range of styling accessories. Each is designed to perfectly complement the XC Strong, light running boards have built-in illumination for a sophisticated, premium look.
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