A Time of War

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The vocal parts of the mass are performed by four soloists soprano, alto, tenor and bass and a four-part choir. The soloists often appear as an ensemble, without arias. Haydn scored the mass for a large orchestra, even adding instruments for a performance in Vienna.

In the following table of the movements, the markings, keys and time signatures are taken from the choral score, using the symbols for common time and alla breve.

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The choir and orchestra are present in all movements. The Kyrie opens like a symphony in sonata form , with a slow introduction before moving on to the main theme. The lyrical, and deeply felt cello and baritone part in the middle section, beginning "Qui tollis peccata mundi" is especially beautiful. The Credo is divided into sections that generally reflect the text, but with Haydn's usual overriding sense of structure.

At the opening, as each voice part enters with a joyous and rhythmic theme, it takes a different line of the text.

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The Crucifixus is set in triple meter. The Sanctus opens slowly, but builds to a rather ominous forte on the text "Pleni sunt coeli" before moving to a brief, more genteel " Hosanna in Excelsis".

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The In Tempore Belli first suggests itself in the Benedictus. This is set mostly in short nervous phrases for the solo quartet, with the three lower voices singing detached notes below the soprano melody reminiscent of pizzicato strings. The sense of anxiety and foreboding continues with ominous drumbeats and wind fanfares in the Agnus Dei , which opens with minor-key timpani strokes hence the German nickname, Paukenmesse , perhaps fate itself, knocking seemingly from the depths.

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The music brightens with trumpet fanfares, ending with an almost dance-like entreaty and celebration of peace, " Dona nobis pacem " Give us peace. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Hoboken catalogue had also placed the masses in a presumed chronological order, but further research has undermined that sequence.

See Oxford Composer Companions: Haydn , ed. Missa in tempore belli. War crimes can be investigated and prosecuted by any State or, in certain circumstances, by an international court. For example, the Security Council can compel States to comply with their obligations or establish a tribunal to investigate breaches.

Torture and other forms of ill-treatment are absolutely prohibited everywhere and at all times. States have agreed that there can be no excuse for torture. Experts also question the effectiveness of torture in terms of the quality of information obtained. The suffering caused by such practices may have profoundly disturbing effects on victims that can last for years.

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Over the last century, armed conflicts have been increasingly fought in populated areas. It's illegal to intentionally target civilians and civilian objects such as houses. All sides must, as much as possible, avoid locating military targets in or near population centres. If an attack is expected to cause "incidental civilian damage" that is excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated, then the attack must not take place. If armed groups are using a hospital or school as a base to launch attacks or store weapons, are those places then a legitimate military target?

The laws of war prohibit direct attacks on civilian objects, like schools. They also prohibit direct attacks against hospitals and medical staff.

A time of war

That said, a hospital or school may become a legitimate military target if it contributes to specific military operations of the enemy and its destruction offers a definite military advantage for the attacking side. Refugees are people who have crossed an international border and are at risk or have been victims of persecution in their country of origin. People can become refugees for many different reasons, including reasons related to armed conflict. IHL generally protects refugees in the same way as other civilians who are affected by armed conflict.

Some of these rules are adapted for refugees in order to reflect their particular vulnerability in the absence of protection by their State of nationality. IHL also protects persons who have not crossed an international frontier, but have, for whatever reason, also fled their homes.

They're usually referred to as "internally displaced persons.

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As said above, torture and other forms of ill treatment are absolutely prohibited. When committed in the context of armed conflict, they constitute a war crime, which may be punished by a national or international court. People who have suffered torture may seek recourse against the responsible authority within their domestic legal system or by making a complaint to a competent human rights tribunal or human rights body.

How does IHL respond to the use of autonomous weapons like robots and drones? IHL limits the right of parties to develop and use new means or methods of warfare like these.

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  4. Whether or not a particular autonomous weapon is lawful depends on how it works and whether it can be used in a way that complies with international law, for example the requirement to distinguish between combatants and civilians. Organizations designated as "terrorist" are bound by IHL if they are organized armed groups engaged in armed confrontations of a certain intensity with another organized armed group or a State.

    In situations of armed conflict, IHL must be observed by all parties. When the situation of violence does not amount to an armed conflict, IHL does not apply to the armed group but the individual members of the organization remain accountable under applicable national law. A person must not be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed. IHL reflects this principle by prohibiting collective punishment and reprisals against civilians. Civilians are protected against attack, unless and for such time as they take a direct part in hostilities.

    How does IHL determine what is and isn't acceptable in time of war? Who are the people making these decisions?

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    IHL is developed by States through codification in legally binding documents or State practice. These two processes often overlap, and sometimes they are influenced by others such as the ICRC, international organizations or non-government organizations.

    This process continues today as the international community responds to new challenges. States and armed groups break the rules of war all the time. Why and how exactly is IHL still relevant? The instances where IHL is violated receive far greater attention than the consistency with which IHL is respected and applied. In many ways, the fact that compliance is unremarkable demonstrates the effectiveness of IHL in shaping parties' behaviour.

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